In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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These systems certainly did not consist of “dissimilar organisms living together The properties just described do not include all the desired ones, but they bring computer storage into resonance with human operators and their predilection to designate things by naming or pointing. The information must be posted by a computer, since manual plotting is too slow to keep it up to date.

How desirable and how feasible is speech communication between human licklieer and computing machines? Ellis in A command structure for complex information processing, Proc.

For eight or ten years, at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, the Royal Institute of Technology Stockholmthe Signals Research and Development Establishment Christchurchthe Haskins Laboratory, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dunn [6], Fant [7], Jfr [15], Cooper [3], Stevens [26], and their co-workers, have demonstrated successive generations of intelligible automatic talkers.

It would be unrewarding to develop the language before there are any computing machines capable of responding meaningfully to it.

Perhaps it is equally hazardous to make general statements about the capabilities of men. Along the first of these paths, there has been promising exploratory work.

At one point, it was necessary to compare six experimental determinations of a function relating speech-intelligibility to speech-to-noise ratio. Man-computer symbiosis continues computee be more science fiction than science fact, but much progress has been made in creating such capabilities. However, a brief outline of one promising idea, “trie memory,” may serve to indicate the general nature of anticipated developments.


Preliminary analyses indicate that the symbiotic partnership will perform intellectual operations much more effectively than man alone can perform them.

An Information Society for All? Ninety-eight per cent correct recognition of naturally spoken decimal digits was demonstrated several years ago at the Bell Telephone Laboratories and at the Lincoln Laboratory [4], [9].

Man-Computer Symbiosis

Then follow directions to the function, which is stored in one or another of several ways, either further trie structure or “list structure” often being most effective. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This is one of several operator-team problems in need of careful study. That development would have a revolutionary effect upon the design of computers. Forgie, symbuosis obtained cojputer a vowel recognition computer program,” J. Another Look at Man-Computer Symbiosis.

The latter specify precisely the individual steps to take and the sequence in which to take them.

Another Look at Man-Computer Symbiosis

Open Standards and the Digital Age. The first symbiosjs to face is that we shall not store all the technical and scientific papers in computer memory. In one sense of course, any man-made system is intended to help man, to help a man or lickpider outside the system. Imagine trying, for example, to direct a battle with the aid of a computer on such a schedule as this. Much more time went into finding or obtaining information than into digesting it.

J. C. R. Licklider – Wikiquote

Technology advances are making human-computer symbiosis a real possibility. In other operations, however, the contributions of men and equipment will be to some extent separable. Other information is of relevance only to one or two operators. It seems entirely possible that, in due course, electronic or chemical “machines” will outdo the human brain in most of the functions we now consider exclusively within its province. Licklider and Welden Clark August At least half of the problem of memory organization appears to reside in the storage procedure.


It would require developments in computer time sharingmemory components, memory organization, programming languagesand input and output equipment. Thus, for example, by entering with the argument, “matrix multiplication,” one might retrieve the entire program for performing a matrix multiplication on the computer. Congress on Acoustics, Stuttgart, Ger. That would leave, say, five years to develop man-computer symbiosis and 15 years to use it.

If an unforeseen alternative arises, the whole process comes to a halt and awaits the necessary extension of the program.

Even now, Gelernter’s IBM program for proving theorems in plane geometry proceeds at about the same pace as Brooklyn high school students, and makes similar errors. Do we want to create brain-computer interface implants to connect people to computers? Unfortunately Babbage never finished the construction of the 19th-century digital computers he designed. Mechanisation of Thought ProcessesNatl.

It is clear that, working within the loose constraints of predetermined strategies, computers will in due course be able to devise and simplify their own procedures for achieving stated goals.