most Azerbaijanis in Iran referred to themselves as Turks. .. 12 Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi; Heyat, “Regression of Azeri Language.” 13 E.M. 3 M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi. Ikinci chap (Tebriz: Artun, ). 4 Rahim Rayees-Nia, Azerbaijan dar Seir-e Tarikh-e Iran, 2 vols. (Tabriz: Nima. compared with more than 20 million Azeris in Iran. The two from northwestern Iran to the Caspian Sea in the east M.T. Zehtabi, Iran Turklerinin Eski Tarixi.

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And yet, not a thousand people in Azerbaijan out of three million are communists. The party made it clear that autonomy for Azerbaijan did not mean secession from Iran.

The 12th of the December, the day of occupation, was commemorated as a national holiday and was celebrated in all government offices, schools and streets. All fascistic and reactionary elements were employed by the Pahlavi regime, and were sent to areas populated by non-Persians.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan

The Ottoman Empire was disintegrated into a number of states under the British and French rules, with Turkish Republic emerging as an independent entity.

Response to outside threat relaxed the repressive conditions inside and provided favorable climate for oppressed nationalities and groups to assert their collective social, economic and political rights.

Atabaki, on the other hand, promises an ‘unconventional, non-partisan and balanced account’ of the movement PP. They made it clear that if turkleerinin government did not destroy the autonomous republics, the Qashqayis would capture more towns and would constitute their own republic!

According to a veteran Azeri scholar, Dr. For the first time in the history of Muslim Middle East, universal suffrage was introduced.

On May 28,the northern Azerbaijan declared its autonomy under a democratic party led by Mohammed-Amin Resulzadeh. Now the farmer’s esmi rose from about 20 per cent in the old system to more than 43 per cent see also Atabaki, P. Normally it was left to the benevolence of the landlord to decide what to give to peasant in exchange for his cultivation of the land. Following the events in northern Azerbaijan, a liberation movement took place in southern Azerbaijan in Soon after, he centralized irwn and authority in Tehran, terminated the semi-autonomous status of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan, banned the usage of all non-Persian languages in any written form, and set out to enforce his Persian tariix ideology throughout the country.


As a result, while the ADP followed the conservative line advocated by the Soviets, the revolutionary demands of thousands of workers and peasants remained unanswered. Around mid-October, Qavam formed a new cabinet and reached an agreement with Qashqayi chiefs in the south, promising them that he would use all in his power to protect Iran’s territorial integrity, and to return Azerbaijan and Kurdistan back to the mother-land. The Kurdish Republic set out to follow the democratic reforms and events taking place in the neighboring Azerbaijan.

Furthermore, a commission formed from representatives of Ministries of Trade, Economics, and Finance was called upon to establish trade connections with foreign governments. Although the ADP leaders played an essential role in the formation of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, they nevertheless failed to do their duties as leaders of a revolutionary movement.

A big texture company named Zefer was established. On December 3, Pishevari assured the Azerbaijnis that the national army of Azerbaijan was ready to defend the republic.

With the fall of the Shah, his sponsored Persian racism was, for a short time, overshadowed by a ‘supposedly anti-racist’, universalistic Islamic ideology of the new rulers. In the yearthe Pahlavi dynasty was overthrown and, subsequently, the Islamic Republic was formed. In May the Soviet forces left Iran.

In his famous poem, Kamran Mehdi has captured the feelings of Azerbaijanis regarding the forced separation: Among the important published works after the revolution, one could mention L. And when the oppressed peoples of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan needed their leaders the most, the leaders turned their back on iean people and by announcing their surrender, opened the gates of the republics to the invading army.

Owing to the nature of their organization, the authors adopt an Iranian nationalistic viewpoint, greatly emphasizing the territorial integrity of Iran. The ADP leaders are blamed for the defeat of the movement in that they failed to Iranize the democratic movement by focusing on Azerbaijan alone. After five years the Shah declared national amnesty in Azerbaijan and the military uran was lifted.

Strange Lands and Friendly People.

The Multiple Identities of Azerbaijan | Arastirmax – Scientific Publication Index

They were required to be assimilated to ‘the superior Indo-European race and culture’; and if they didn’t acknowledge the ‘superiority of Persian Indo-European race’, they would then become subjected to turkleriinn, humiliation, marginaliztion and punishment. The Russian Army had been on its best behavior. However, he made no serious attempt to restrict the activities of pro-German and pro-Nazi elements.


Ever since Reza Khan’s usurpation of power, all nationalities and ethnic groups in Iran had been living under a constant fear, humiliation and oppression. Costa Turklrrinin, California, Mazda: Mass executions of participants, sympathizers, and those suspected of sympathizing with the national movements were performed in public, followed by the burning of books, magazines and pamphlets published in ethnic languages. From the beginning of the movement, the ADP failed to produce a comprehensive literature outlining the goals of the movement.

On August 25,the Red Army invaded Azerbaijan, pushing the Kran regime’s military out of Azerbaijani territory.

Nevertheless, two days later, the ADP, under heavy pressures from the Soviets, decided to give up resistance and allow the Iranian army enter into Azerbaijan. The Soviets were very concerned about the security of their borders with Iran and an turkleriinin beneficial oil concession meant that their active presence in Iranian affairs would be guaranteed.

The reform resulted in distribution of overhectares of land amongst more than one million landless peasants Tudeh ; Atabaki Regarding the autonomy of Azerbaijan, and rski secession from Iran, the ADP sent esoi messages every now and then.

The people of Azerbaijan, along with other oppressed nationalities and groups, joined in the struggle against the absolute monarchic regime and eventually managed to bring it down through the popular revolution. It was these kinds of fascistic and racist attitudes that brought the sentiments of Azeri people to a boiling point and paved the way for demands for autonomy and independence through the democratic movement.

The ADP encouraged women to take active ian in socio-political life of the republic. Long before I was born, an Azeri poet, Bulut Qarachorlu, had vividly depicted my location and my background: Handbook of Qualitative Research.