A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to. Hydrogels are used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, vehicles for drug delivery, actuators for optics and fluidics, and model extracellular matrices for biological. In this investigation, we successfully prepared extremely stretchable, transparent and tough DN hydrogels by using neutral synthetic polymer–poly(vinyl alcohol).

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Impact of manufacturing technology and material composition on the mechanical properties of hydrogel contact lenses. After curing, the gel was taken out of the humid box, and water on the surfaces of the gel was removed with N 2 gas for 1 minute.

Citations Publications citing this paper. Leave a comment Cancel reply Strechable address is optional. The rupture of the short-chain network, however, causes permanent damage.

Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels – Semantic Scholar

Microcapsules and microcarriers for in situ cell delivery. That a tough material can be made of brittle constituents is reminiscent of transformation-toughening ceramics, as well as composites made hydrogls ceramic fibers and ceramic matrices. Independent control of rigidity and toughness of polymeric hydrogels. Haraguchi K, Takehisa T. The stress and the stretch at rupture were, respectively, kPa and 23 for the hybrid gel, 3.


The authors declare no competing financial interests. Lamellar bilayers as reversible sacrificial bonds to toghen hydrogel: High-water-content and resilient PEG-containing hydrogels with low fibrotic response. The solution was poured into a glass mold, From This Paper Figures, tables, and topics from this paper.

The existing works, however, have demonstrated fracture energy comparable to, or lower than, that of the double-network gels. The alginate-to-acrylamide ratio was 1: Energy, Physics Drug vehicle.

Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels

Tlugh elastic gel is known to be brittle and notch-sensitive—that is, the high stretchability and strength drop markedly when samples contain notches, or any other features that cause inhomogeneous deformation [ 19 ]. Our data suggest that the fracture energy of hydrogels can be dramatically enhanced by combining weak and strong crosslinks. Syretchable R Soc A. The gel was then left in a humid box for 1 day to stabilize the reactions.

In an toug solution, the G blocks on different alginate chains form ionic crosslinks through divalent cations e. The scope of applications, however, is often severely limited by the mechanical behavior of hydrogels [ 5 ].

One of the two polymers provides elasticity to the printed material, while the other allows it to dissipate energy under deformation without breaking.

The publisher’s final edited version of this article is available at Nature. Ztretchable blunting and the strength of soft elastic solids. Home About Contact Newsletter Resources.


J Am Ceram Soc. Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. A ball of a higher kinetic energy, however, caused the membrane to rupture after large deformation Supplementary Movie 3.

After the first loading the gel does not recover from the damage; on subsequent loadings the fracture energy is much reduced [ 21 ]. For example, the poor mechanical stability of hydrogels used for cell encapsulation often leads to unintended cell release and death [ 29 ], and low toughness limits the durability of contact lenses [ 30 ].

Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels

That is, the properties at rupture of the hybrid gel far exceeded those of either of its parents. When the hybrid gel is stretched, the polyacrylamide network remains intact and stabilizes hydroge,s deformation, while the alginate network unzips progressively, with closely spaced ionic crosslinks unzipping at a small stretch, followed by more and more widely spaced ionic crosslinks unzipping as the stretch increases.

When we cut a notch into the gel Fig. Hydrogels for soft machines.