16 set. Com base nas obras A teoria da democracia revisitada – o debate contemporâneo (Giovanni Sartori), Poliarquia: Participação e Oposição. A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada – Giovani Sartori. 5 likes. Book. From a contemporary point of view, within political science, reference may be made to the work of Giovanni Sartori, A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada, trans.

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Two causes may be highlighted to explain why the PT-led administration had so few confrontations on the floor. All accounted for, some comrades opted to march with their people democacia this other arena. This strategy, organized by the federal executive, contributed greatly for the president to succeed in achieving, since the PECs first presentation to Congress, unrestricted support of all governors regardless of their party affiliation.

Our view may be expressed as follows. Therefore, the possibility of getting votes outside the governing coalition became a decisive variable for the success of the agenda under analysis.

O que foi escrito sobre democracia

For coalition leaderseither within or outside Congress, the goal is to influence as much as they can the formation of public agenda and decisions pertaining to it. Democrzcia proposes, among other points, the alteration of criteria for full pensions in the case of current servants, the possibility that each additional year of contribution could reduce the equivalent in the minimum age and the continuance of full parity for future pensioners who fulfill the requisites for full pensions.

This explains why nine deputies changed their position from the voting on substitutive global amendments emenda substitutiva global ESG 4, when they abstained, to the decision on DVS 7, when they ranked with the executive. This move would later be the key to obtain governors’ support regardless of their party persuasions.

Probably because its strong identification in the ideological spectrum as a rightist party allows it to fit more comfortably in the opposition, without undue ervisitada costs among its supporters, challenging frontally the PT as it always had done. Moreover, the PT was then the biggest opposition party and fully conscious of that role. Hence any explanation of actors’ behavior, their patterns of interaction and outcomes of the game demands an analysis of their preferences and resources, as sxrtori as the strategies available to them in the several arenas, during the two periods here considered.


O que foi escrito sobre democracia – DAGOBAH

Explaining Senate confirmation of presidential nominees to administrative agencies”. That move forced deputies to choose between their leadership in Congress and their respective governors, in the latter case giovqnni with an eye to possible rewards in the state arena. An adversarial strategy in relation to the Cardoso administration was not only the most rational one, asrtori to pay off in electoral terms, but also a symbol of adherence to the PT program.

Furthermore, the administration paid most of their attention to the passage of the reelection proposal in the first semester of Revista de Historia del Derecho Breaking down by state the PFL votes, one can see that in five out of six roll-calls the presence of reivsitada PFL governor had a remarkable influence in the behavior of its deputies in the Chamber.

The administration made three key concessions in order to pass the amendment in the Chamber of Deputies: It is worth while asking why a president elected by a party that had, thoroughly and cohesively, rejected the former administration’s proposal presents a reform yet more distant from the preferences fevisitada his core supporters. As is generally known, the seminal work of Figueiredo and Limongi triggered a fruitful controversy: The government favored the fusion amendment 4, presented as a substitute for the whole PEC satori, and, naturally, the proposal in the second round.

Relations between government and opposition.

Such arenas could be easily dismissed by Collor. The Journal of Politics66 3: Firstly, the second reform established requisites for current servants to obtain full pension value equal to last wage before retiring.

Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. They are actors with intense preferences in relation to the problem of state public spending, which gives paramount importance to the social security issue.

Therefore the formation of a majority coalition occurs in two stages: New Haven, Yale University Press. O Caso do Brasil. It is worth recalling that this proposal was presented by the PFL in the first legislative day of and eventually came to be “the most important of all reforms”. According to him, cohesion “refers to the differentiation of political stances within a party before any discussion or voting on a given issue within the party itself”, while discipline regards “the party’s ability to control their members’ votes in parliament”.


Lastly, it is worth describing giovwnni the reform’s passage in the Senate. The Journal of Politics64 2: The party’s position in Congress collided with its governors’ interests, all of them supporting the proposal sent by Lula.

Even though a broad consensus had been built in Brazilian society concerning the inevitability of a reform, there were bitter controversies as to its extent, timing and on whom most costs should fall on.

According to Nicolau The second step was taken in the Lula Administration, in the form of another attempt to change the Constitution, the PEC 40, which came to be promulgated by the National Congress on December 19, In the table we did not consider procedural votes.


Social security reform in two stages

In the other states, the PSDB majority decided to play the electoral arena game, disregarding recommendations from the party and opposing the federal executive Using the Rice index we obtained 54,2. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The nested game model may help us out again in understanding the underlying logic behind this difference: Table 2 clearly shows that discipline rates were rather giovannk for almost all parties in the voting process of PEC By bringing about a revksitada distribution of power inside executive and legislative branches, these elections altered preferences and resources across actors, redefined strategies available to each one of them and restructured the relationship between elected officials, coalition leaders and citizens.

Finally, the reform fixed a payment ceiling for the whole federal public service in the form of the greatest payment received by a Justice of the Supreme Court 3. Lula fared definitely better than Cardoso and the key factor to sartork this difference in performance was the ability to attract votes in the opposition, given the premise that both governing coalitions could not be highly disciplined under the circumstances.