This article throws light upon the five stages in downstream processing. The five stages are: (1) Solid-Liquid Separation (2) Release of Intracellular Products (3). Downstream Processing means recovery of desired products from its crude extract. As we all know that downstream processing is a procedure of separation as well as recovery of yielded products that are manufactured by.

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Proteins are also purified for characterization, for instance enzymes with new, or modified, activities developed by enzyme evolution and engineering. Filtration is the most commonly used technique for separating the biomass and culture filtrate.

Stages in Downstream Processing: 5 Stages

This is mainly because freeze-drying usually does not cause loss of biological activity of the desired product. This is also referred to as size-exclusion chromatography. Alkali treatment has been used for the extraction of some bacterial proteins. The smaller molecules enter the gel beads through their downstdeaming and get trapped.

They can be prepared by mixing a polymer e.


This site uses cookies By clicking the ” Agree “-button you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Similar methods are used for smaller, water soluble molecules, such as peptides and amino acids.

Downstream processing refers to the recovery and purification of biosynthetic products, particularly pharmaceuticals, from natural sources such as animal or plant tissue or fermentation broth, including the recycling of salvageable components and the proper treatment and disposal of waste. The stabilizers of protein formulation include sugars sucrose, lactosesalts sodium chloride, ammonium sulfatepolymers polyethylene glycol and polyhydric alcohols glycerol.

To this shaft are fitted radial agitators. Among the physical methods of cell disruption described above, ultra sonication, high-pressure homogenization, impingement and grinding with glass beads are mechanical while osmotic shock and heat shock are non-mechanical.

Capture The starting point for product capture is a clean filtrate which contains desired product plus many different contaminants. For most products, water is the chief impurity and isolation steps are designed to remove most of it, reducing the volume of material to be handled and concentrating the product. Proteins usually require certain stabilizing additives to increase their shelf life.


Most of the biological products of fermentation are sensitive to heat, and therefore require gentle drying methods. PEG does not denature proteins, besides being non-toxic.

In order to increase the efficiency of cell disintegration in a cost-effective manner, a combination of physical, chemical and enzymatic methods is employed.

It is composed of a rotating horizontal bowl tapered at one end.

Downstream Process

It contains a cylindrical body with an inlet, outlet and a central motor-driven shaft. Certain stabilizing additives are added to prolong the shelf life of protein. Spray drying is used for drying large volumes of liquids. The downztreaming products of fermentation proteins, pharmaceuticals, diagnostic compounds and research materials are very effectively purified by chromatography. In flocculation, the cells or cell debris form large aggregates to settle down for easy removal.

The distribution of the desired product is based on its surface and ionic character and the nature of phases. Reverse micelles are stable aggregates of surfactant molecules and water in organic solvents. Additional solubilizing step downstraeming required involving the use of strong, denaturing buffers, prior to processs refolding and recovery by high resolution chromatography.

Downstream Processing :- An Overview and Process steps

Integration of certain stages in downstream processing for purification of product has met with some success. When a gas is introduced into the liquid broth, it forms bubbles. The different types of centrifuges are depicted in Fig.

Membranes used in filtration are made up of polymeric materials such as polyethersulfone and polyvinyl di-fluoride. At the industrial scale, gel-filtration is particularly useful to remove salts and low molecular weight compounds from high molecular weight products.

Tubular bowl centrifuge Fig. Ultrasonic disintegration is widely employed in the laboratory. Downstream processing involves the purification of a specific molecule such as a protein dowwnstreaming nucleic acid from the wet biomass. The presence of certain substances, referred to as collector substances, facilitates stable foam formation e.


The starting point for product capture is a clean filtrate which contains desired product plus many different contaminants. Downstrreaming commonly used techniques for concentrating biological products are evaporation, liquid-liquid extraction, membrane filtration, precipitation and adsorption. Such compounds have to be first released maximally and in an active form for their further processing and final isolation.

In the actual technique, the liquid containing the product is frozen and then dried in a freeze-dryer under vacuum. Such operations might include the removal of viruses or depyrogenation. The products of biotechnology include whole cells, organic acids, amino acids, solvents, antibiotics, industrial enzymes, therapeutic proteins, vaccines etc. It has been successfully used for breaking E.

Bhavna Anand Mahajan A prolific medical writer and a practicing physiotherapist, Dr. Before proceeding towards its applications, one must know how this downstream processing is carried out and what steps of it are. The Gram- downtsreaming bacteria with high content of cell wall mucopeptides are more susceptible for the action of lysozyme.

Proteinsin particular enzymes, are purified by methods such as membrane filtration, adsorption and chromatography, as well as high-pressure homogenization for intracellular products. There is a continuous feeding of the slurry and downsttreaming of clarified fluid, while the solids deposited can be removed intermittently. Additional operations such as grinding, homogenization, or leaching, required to recover products from solid sources such as plant and animal tissues, are usually included in this group.

Purificaion And Polishing Purificaion refers to the elimination of all contaminating molecules and the presentation of the downwtreaming product in a pure and homogeneous form. Capture or polish downetreaming approach is currently used where the capturing step achieves most of the purification in one module procfss significantly reduces the feed volume by simultaneously concentrating the product in the flow-through.